Bioactive Hexane Extracts from Piper aduncum and Xylopia aromatica Against Bacterial Strains which Cause Food Poisoning

Extratos Hexânicos Bioativos de Piper aduncum e Xylopia aromatica Contra Cepas Bacterianas que Causam Intoxicação Alimentar


  • Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda Instituto Federal do Triângulo Mineiro - Campus Uberlândia Centro
  • Valdenir Morais
  • Cassia Fernandes
  • Carlos Martins
  • Antônio Crotti



Plants and their extracts have been used as natural antimicrobial agents in food products as a strategy
to mitigate food contamination. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the chemical composition of
hexane extracts from Piper aduncum leaves and inflorescences (HE-PL and HE-PI, respectively) and
from Xylopia aromatica leaves (HE-XA) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and
gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Antibacterial activities of HE-PL, HE‑PI
and HE-XA were evaluated in terms of their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = μg/mL) and
minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC = μg/mL) values by the broth microdilution method in
96-well microplates. Major constituents found in HE-PL were germacrene B (33.1%), valencene
(14.5%), β-cadinene (9.1%) and α-humulene (8.1%) while the ones found in HE-PI were sesquiterpenes
caryophyllene oxide (20.5%), spathulenol (15.2%) and germacrene B (9.7%). Spathulenol (41.2%),
α-copaene (16.6%) and β-phellandrene (7.9%) were the major constituents in HE-XA. Since the
extracts under study exhibited excellent MIC and MBC values, they showed high bioactive potential
against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Brochothrix thermosphacta,
Clostridium botulinum and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Besides, this study showed, for the first time, that
both P. aduncum and X. aromatica have antimicrobial properties against these microorganisms, a fact
that reveals their biotechnological potential in food preservation.