Reciclagem de Placas de Circuito Impresso para Extração de Cobre: Uma Revisão dos Métodos Utilizados




The accelerated pace of technological innovations, the frequency of replacement of electrical and electronic
equipment and the consequent decrease in the useful life of these devices have caused the generation of
electronic waste in the world to increase significantly in recent years, with a projection of continuous and
accelerated growth until 2030. In addition, statistics show that the formal recycling rate does not keep up
with this growing waste stream, and most electronic waste is being disposed of incorrectly or directed to
conventional treatment in landfills and incineration, posing a serious danger to the environment. Waste
printed circuit boards are an economically attractive urban mining source for recycling due to their
high content of common and precious metals (copper being the most abundant metal) often higher than
their respective primary resources. Thus, this review article aims to provide a comprehensive analysis
of the situation of electronic waste in the world, the main processes used for recycling waste printed
circuit boards, including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and biohydrometallurgy, their advantages,
disadvantages, and the challenges to achieve a cleaner recycling process that promotes a high recovery
rate of metals with less environmental impact.