Material Particulado Fino: a Legislação Brasileira à Luz das Recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde
As recently acknowledged by the World Health Organization (WHO), there is strong evidence that air pollution affects human health at even lower concentrations that previously understood. Exposure to fine particulate matter is related to ischemic heart disease and stroke, to chronic pulmonary disease and has impact on child health and survival. The most recent Brazilian legislation, published in 2018, determined that the environmental agencies of each State and the Federal District should elaborate a plan to control pollution emissions and assess air quality according to the National Air Quality Standards (NAQS). Three years later, fine particulate matter is only monitored by automatic monitoring stations in São Paulo State and in one station in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. Results obtained by the mobile station and fixed stations operated by the Municipal Department of the Environment in Rio de Janeiro are presented and discussed. Considering Brazilian NAQS, air quality indexes are in general “Good”, but the value of 15 µg m-3, recommended by WHO in 2021, is exceeded in approximately 50% of days in several areas. The main emissions sources in the city of Rio de Janeiro and the Metropolitan Area are also presented. More investments are required to ensure people’s right to healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages, to reduce the economic effects of air pollution and to make Brazilian cities safe and sustainable following the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
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