Antioxidant, antibacterial activities and Phytochemical Composition of the aerial
Palavras-chave:Amarantaceae, 20-hydroxyecdysone, fatty acids
Brazil is the country with the largest plant diversity in the world, and many of these species are used in traditional medicine. However, a large number of these medicinal plants have not yet been studied. Thus, the present study investigated the species Gomphrena vaga Mart., which is an endemic species in Brazil, belonging to the Amaranthaceae family. This plant is used in traditional medicine as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The plant parts studied were its leaves, stem, and root. The phytochemical study was performed using chromatographic methods, while antioxidant and antibacterial activities assays were performed employing in vitro tests using, respectively, the methods of DPPH• and Agar-diffusion technique for E. coli, E. faecalis, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. From the phytochemical study, different fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated, were identified. Also, the sterol 20-hydroxyecdysone was isolated from the root extracts in a significant amount, representing 0.95% by weight of dry matter. The results of biological assays demonstrated the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant, with a high content of phenolic compounds, mainly in the polar fractions (385.15 mg EAG∙g-1 of the sample, for the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves), low values of EC50, between 49.22 and 74.91 µg∙mL-1, including for 20-hydroxyecdysone (50.55 µg∙mL-1) and positive results against S. epidermidis and E. faecalis, with inhibition halos between 9.09 and 12.80 mm. The results obtained in this study contribute to add value to this species, justifying its therapeutic uses.
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